Wednesday, December 13, 2017
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Species

The main commercial Salt waterfish species belong to 14 families, and the catches vary seasonally. The prime species caught by gillnets in the Arabian gulf are:

1. Pampus argenteus (zobaidy; silver pomfret),
2. Tenualosa ilisha (suboor; hilsa shad),
3. Pomadasys kaakan (nagroor; grunt sp.),
4. Liza species (maid and beyah; mullets).
5. Epinephelus coioides (hamoor; grouper sp.),
6. Acanthopagrus latus (shaem; seabream sp.),
7. Lutjanus malabaricus (hamrah; snapper sp.)
8. Otolithes ruber (newaiby; tigertooth croaker).
9. Elopidae, Elops saurus (SIKIN;TARPONS)

Most of above species spawn in the southern marshes of Iraq; through the Shat al arab and Shat al basrah. Almost all above except 1 and 2 are found in the Mediterranean and the Red sea. Family Haemulidae, GRUNTS (HAMOUR)Haemulon plumieri


Description: body color light bluish-gray, head with horizontal blue stripes, white underbelly; black blotch on preopercle; margin of each scale bronze; large bright orange mouth; scales above lateral line larger than scales below lateral line.

Similar Fish: other grunts.

Where found: from SHORE to the outer reef edge or on OFFSHORE hard bottom to 115 feet; most abundant in water less than 80 feet deep; juveniles INSHORE.


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Family Elopidae, TARPONS (SIKIN)
Elops saurus


Description: terminal mouth, slender body, small scales; last dorsal ray not elongated; head small and pointed.

Similar Fish: juvenile tarpon, Megalops atlanticus.

Where found: INSHORE fish, in bays and estuaries; occasionally enters freshwater, occurring in tidal pools and canals; often forms large schools and harasses bait at the surface.

Size: 2 to 3 pounds.


Remarks: known to spawn OFFSHORE, ribbon-like larvae very similar to Albula and
Megalops, peaking in fall; adult feeds predominantly on fish and crustaceans; leaps when hooked.


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Family: Stromateidae (Butterfishes) ZUBAIDI
Order: Perciformes
Class: Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes)
FB name: Silver pomfret


Distribution:
Indo-West Pacific: from the Arabian Gulf east to Indonesia northward to Hokkaido (Japan). Extralimital captures have been made from the Adriatric and off Hawaii. Not recorded from Australasia.

 

Diagnosis:
Dorsal spines (total): 0-0;
Dorsal softrays (total): 37-43.
Body very deep, and compressed. Operculum absent; gill opening reduced to a vertical slit on the side of the body; gill membrane broadly united to isthmus. Dorsal and anal fins preceded by a series of 5 to 10 blade-like spines with anterior and posterior points.

 

Pelvic fins absent.
Caudal fin deeply forked, the lower lobe longer than the upper. Color is gray above grading to silvery white towards the belly, with small black dots all over the body. Fins are faintly yellow; vertical fins with dark edges.

Biology:
Inshore species, usually in schools over muddy bottoms, associated with fish species like Nemipterus and Leiognathus. Feeds on ctenophores, salps, medusae, and other zooplankton groups. Western populations spawn from late winter through the summer with peaks from April to June. Sold fresh in local markets or shipped frozen to urban centers. Used in Chinese medicine Max. size: 60.0 cm SL


Environment: benthopelagic; marine ; depth range 5 - 110 m Climate: subtropical; 57°N - 3°S
Importance: fisheries: highly commercial
Threatened: Not in IUCN Red List
Dangerous: harmless

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Family: Clupeidae (Herrings, shads, sardines, menhadens) SBOOR
Order: Clupeiformes
Class: Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes)
FB name: Hilsa shad

Tenualosa ilisha


Distribution: Northern part of the Indian Ocean (from `the Gulf' eastward to Myanmar, including western and eastern coasts of India, also rivers). Reported from the Gulf of Tonkin, Viet Nam (Ref. 9706).


Diagnosis: Dorsal spines (total): 0-0; Dorsal softrays (total): 18-21; Anal spines: 0-0; Anal soft-rays: 18-23. Belly with 30 to 33 scutes. Distinct median notch in upper jaw. gillrakers fine and numerous, about 100 to 250 on lower part of arch. Fins hyaline. A darkblotch behind gill opening, followed by a series of small spots along flank in juveniles. Color in life, silver shot with gold and purple.
 

Biology: Schooling in coastal waters and ascending rivers for as much as 1200 km (usually 50-100 km). Migration though is sometimes restricted by barrages. Hilsa far up the Ganges and other large rivers seem to be permanent river populations. Feeds on plankton, mainly by filtering, but apparently also by grubbing on muddy bottoms. Breeds mainly in rivers during the southwest monsoon (also from January to February/March). Artificial propagation has been partially successful in India (Ref. 4832). Known to be a fast swimmer, covering 71 km in one day (Ref. 12203). Marketed fresh or dried-salted. Max. size: 60.0 cm SL; max.weight: 680.0 g; max.weight: 2,490.0 g


Environment: pelagic; freshwater; brackish; marine ; depth range - 200 m
Climate: tropical; 33°N - 7°N
Importance: fisheries: minor commercial; aquaculture: experimental
Threatened: Not in IUCN Red List
Dangerous: harmless
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Family: Haemulidae (Grunts) NAGROOR
Order: Perciformes
Class: Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes)
FB name: Javelin grunter


Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: east coast of Africa (including Madagascar, Seychelles, Farrquhar and Comoro islands) extending through Southeast Asia north to Taiwan and south to Queensland, Australia.
 

Diagnosis: Dorsal spines (total): 12-12; Dorsal softrays (total): 13-15; Anal spines: 3-3; Anal soft-rays: 7-8. Body is slender; the head profile slightly convex; lips not thickened; 2 pores and a central groove under the chin. No antrorse spine before the dorsal fin origin; a deep notch between the spinous and the soft-rayed portion of the dorsal fin. Color is generally silvery with a golden tint on the sides; the upper operculum olive-yellow; the snout dusky, overlain with yellow. Young specimens have 7-11 vertical bands on the upper sides; older ones with bands formed by spots aligned in vertical rows.


Biology: Inhabits turbid inshore waters with sandy to muddy bottoms to a depth of 75 m. Enteries estuaries may tolerate water with low salinity. Often associated with inshore wrecks (Ref. 4332). Feeds on crustaceans and fish (Ref. 5213). Spawners form shoals near river mouths during the winter. Good food fish (Ref. 2799).
Max. size: 80.0 cm TL


Environment: reef-associated; brackish; marine ; depth range - 75 m
Climate: tropical
Importance: fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
Threatened: Not in IUCN Red List
Dangerous: harmless

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Family: Mugilidae (Mullets) BIAH
Order: Perciformes
Class: Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes)
FB name: Golden grey mullet


Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Scotland to Cape Verde; in the Mediterranean and Black Sea.Also in coastal waters from southern Norway to Morocco, rare off Mauritania (Ref. 3573). Records from the lagoon of Accra are probably misidentifications.


Diagnosis: Longer pectoral fins, lack of black spot at the pectoral fin base. Golden spot present in gill cover (Ref. 35388). Biology: Neritic, entering lagoons and lower estuaries (Ref. 7399). Rarely entering fresh water (Ref. 3573). Feeds on small benthic organisms, detritus, and occasionally on insects and plankton (Ref. 2804). Reproduction takes place in the sea, from July to November. Minimum size allowed for fishing is 20 cm. The quality of the flesh is variable (Ref. 30578).
Max. size: 59.0 cm TL


Environment: pelagic; brackish; marine ; depth range - 10 m
Climate: temperate; 64°n - 20°n
Importance: fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: commercial
Threatened: Not in IUCN Red List
Dangerous: harmless

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Family: Sparidae (Porgies) SHIEM
Order: Perciformes
Class: Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes)
FB name: Yellowfin seabream


Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Persian Gulf and along the coast of India eastward to the Philippines, northward to Japan and southward to Australia. Also recorded from the Gulf of Tadjourah, Djibouti (Ref. 5450).
 

Biology: Occurs in shallow coastal waters and enters river mouths and estuaries. Feeds mainly on echinoderms, worms, crustaceans and mollusks. Mainly exploited by artisanal fisheries. Sold fresh in markets. Used in Chinese medicine (Ref. 12166).
Max. size: 50.0 cm TL


Environment: demersal; freshwater; brackish; marine ; depth range - 50 m Climate: tropical; 34°n - 27°s Importance: fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: commercial Threatened: Not in IUCN Red List Dangerous: harmless
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Family: Lutjanidae (Snappers),
subfamily: Lutjaninae
Order: Perciformes
Class: Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes)
FB name: Malabar blood snapper


Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Arabian Gulf and Arabian Sea in the west to Southeast Asia, northward to southern Japan and southward to Australia. This species has been frequently misidentified as L. sanguineus. There are unsubstantiated reports of this species off East Africa. Known from Fiji and Tuvalu (Ref. 12596).

Diagnosis:
Dorsal spines (total): 11-11;
Dorsal softrays (total): 12-14;
Anal spines: 3-3;
Anal soft-rays: 8-9.
Dorsal profile of head steeply sloped.


Preorbital bone much broader than eye diameter. Preopercular notch and knob poorly developed.Scale rows on back rising obliquely above lateral line. Juveniles with a broad, oblique band of brown or black, from upper jaw to beginning of dorsal fin; a prominent black band runs across the caudal peduncle with a pearly-white border. Young with horizontal lines on sides.

Biology: Inhabit both coastal and offshore reefs. Feed mainly on fishes, with small amounts of benthic crustaceans,cephalopods and other benthic invertebrates. They forage mostly at night Max. size: 100.0 cm TL; max.weight: 7,910.0 g; max. reported age: 12 years

 

Environment: reef-associated; marine ; depth range 12 - 100 m Climate: tropical; 34°N - 34°S Importance: fisheries: highly commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: commercial Threatened: Not in IUCN Red List Dangerous: harmless
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Family: Sciaenidae (Drums or croakers) NUAIBI
Order: Perciformes
Class: Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes)
FB name: Tiger-toothed croaker


Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, including Madagascar (absent in the Red Sea), eastward to southern China Sea and Queensland, Australia. Diagnosis: Dorsal spines (total): 10-11; Dorsal softrays (total): 27-30; Anal spines: 2-2; Anal soft-rays: 7-8


Biology: Found in coastal waters (Ref. 30573). Feeds on fishes, prawns and other invertebrates (Ref. 5213, 9772). Generally marketed fresh, may be dried or salted (Ref. 5284). Max. size: 90.0 cm TL; max.weight: 7,000.0 g
 

Environment: benthopelagic; brackish; marine ; depth range 10 - 40 m Climate: tropical; 26 - 29°C; 34°n - 28°s Importance: fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes Threatened: Not in IUCN Red List Dangerous: harmless